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# Active & Reactive Power

Measure active and reactive powers of voltage-current pair

## Library

Extras/Measurements

A discrete version of this block is available in the Extras/Discrete Measurements library.

## Description

The Active & Reactive Power block measures the active power P and reactive power Q associated with a periodic voltage-current pair that can contain harmonics. P and Q are calculated by averaging the V I product with a running average window over one cycle of the fundamental frequency, so that the powers are evaluated at fundamental frequency.

where T = 1/(fundamental frequency).

A current flowing into an RL branch, for example, produces positive active and reactive powers.

As this block uses a running window, one cycle of simulation has to be completed before the output gives the correct active and reactive powers.

The discrete version of this block, available in the Extras/Discrete Measurements library, allows you to specify the initial input voltage and current (magnitude and phase). For the first cycle of simulation the outputs are held constant using the values specified by the initial input parameters.

## Dialog Box and Parameters

Fundamental frequency (Hz)

The fundamental frequency, in hertz, of the instantaneous voltage and current.

## Inputs and Outputs

V

The first input is the instantaneous voltage, in volts.

I

The second input is the instantaneous current, in amperes.

PQ

The output is a vector [P Q] of the active and reactive powers, in watts and vars, respectively.

## Example

The power_transfopower_transfo example simulates a three-winding distribution transformer rated at 75 kVA:14400/120/120 V. The transformer primary winding is connected to a high-voltage source of 14400 Vrms. Two identical inductive loads (20 kW-10 kvar) are connected to the two secondary windings. A third capacitive load (30 kW-20 kvar) is fed at 240 V.

Initially, the circuit breaker in series with Load 2 is closed, so that the system is balanced. When the circuit breaker opens, a current starts to flow in the neutral path as a result of the load imbalance.

The active power computed from the primary voltage and current is measured by an Active & Reactive Power block. When the breaker opens, the active power decreases from 70 kW to 50 kW.